🇸🇬 lah (Singlish) - Placed at the end of a phrase or sentence either for emphasis or reassurance.

JustTestLah! is an end-to-end UI testing framework for mobile and web applications. It started as a demonstration project to showcase concepts shared during tech talks and conferences.

This framework follows a BDD approach and allows testing on different platforms (Android, iOS and Web) using the same test scenarios. JustTestLah’s main aim is to make the configuration as easy and the test code as simple, readable and maintainable as possible.

JustTestLah! is based on Selenium and Appium.

Getting started

Pull the repo and run the demo (a set of simple tests for Stackoverflow):

git clone https://github.com/martinschneider/justtestlah.git
cd justtestlah-demos
mvn test

justtestlah.properties

The file justtestlah.properties holds all parameters required for a test run and is the only source of configuration which needs to be specified. It will be loaded from the classpath by default, but it is recommended to pass its path as a system property explicitly:

mvn test -DjtlProps=/absolute/path/to/your/testabc.properties

This way, you can easily maintain different configurations for different test setups.

The most important properties are:

# Platform to test on (Android, iOS, Web)
platform=

# The path to the Cucumber feature files
features.directory=

# Java package containing the Cucumber steps
steps.package=

# Java package containing the Page objects
pages.package=

Each run will execute tests for a single platform. Let’s see how we can run the Android demo next.

Android demo

To test a mobile app, you need to setup Appium and start an Appium server. Make sure there is at least one physical or virtual (Android emulator or iPhone simulator) device connected. Then simply execute the tests by setting platform=android in your JustTestLah! properties file. This is the only difference to the configuration for the web test. The Stackoverflow APK file can be found here.

iOS demo

There is currently no public demo for iOS. This is mostly because app packages (builds for the iPhone simulator) for any interesting real-world application are not readily available and ipa builds need to be re-signed to play nicely with Appium. If you want to contribute a demo, please conatct me.

That said, JustTestLah! can be (and has been) used to automate iOS apps.

Available demos

There are a couple of demos available under the justtestlah-demos module. The default one uses Stackoverflow and comes in flavours for web and android (upvote this question to help us get access to an iOS version.

Which tests get executed depends on the features.directory property:

# The path to the Cucumber feature files
features.directory=

On top of that, we need to specify where the corresponding steps classes and page objects can be found:

# Java package containing the Cucumber steps
steps.package=

# Java package containing the Page objects
pages.package=

All demos are rather simple proofs of concept, please create a pull request if you want to contribute more.

Use JustTestLah! in your own projects

It’s simple!

Option 1: Using Maven archetype

A fast way to get a working template project is using the JustTestLah! Maven archetype:

mvn archetype:generate -DarchetypeGroupId=qa.justtestlah -DarchetypeArtifactId=justtestlah-quickstart

Getting started

This will create a new directory (based on the artifactId you selected). Change to this directory and run mvn test to execute the sample tests.

By default, the sample project will only include the core functionality of JustTestLah! You can add additional modules by passing any of the following arguments:

-Dawsdevicefarm=true -Dbrowserstack=true -Dgalen=true -Dmobile=true -Dvisual=true

Option 2: Manual setup using Maven

Add the following to your pom.xml:

<dependency>
  <groupId>qa.justtestlah</groupId>
  <artifactId>justtestlah-core</artifactId>
  <version>1.9-RC4</version>
</dependency>

Option 3: Manual setup using Gradle

Add the following to your build.gradle:

compile group: 'qa.justtestlah', name: 'justtestlah-core', version: '1.9-RC4'

Option 4: Manual setup

Add justtestlah-core-1.9-RC4.jar to your classpath.

Page objects, steps and feature files

There are three main ingredients for tests in JustTestLah!:

  • Page objects are a representation of a UI element (a page, a dialog, a screen etc.).
  • Step definitions use page objects to define the actions of a test. They form the building blocks to write
  • feature files which represent the test scenarios.

Steps and page objects are designed to be highly re-usable.

Demo of a feature file:

Feature: Search and tags

@web
Scenario: Filter by tags
  Given I am on the homepage
  When I go to the tags page
  And I filter for "selenium"
  And I select the tag "selenium"
  And I select the first question
  Then the question is tagged with "selenium"

@web @android
Scenario: Use the search function
  Given I am on the homepage
  When I search for "selenium"
  And I select the first question
  Then the question is tagged with "selenium"

Demo of a step definition class:

public class HomeSteps extends BaseSteps {
  private HomePage home;

  @Given("I am on the homepage")
  public void homepage() {
    home.load();
  }

  @When("I go to the tags page")
  public void goToTags() {
    home.navigateToTagsPage();
  }

  @When("I search for {string}")
  public void search(String query) {
    home.search(query);
  }
}

Demo of a page object:

@Component
@Profile(Platform.WEB)
public class HomePage extends BasePage<HomePage> {

  private QuestionsPage questions;

  private TagsPage tags;

  public HomePage load() {
    open(configuration.getBaseUrl());
    return this;
  }

  public TagsPage navigateToTagsPage() {
    $("MENU_TAGS").click();
    return tags;
  }

  public QuestionsPage search(String query) {
    $("SEARCH_FIELD").sendKeys(query);
    $("SEARCH_BUTTON").should(appear).click();
    return questions;
  }
}

You can inject page objects in steps by declaring a private field:

private HomePage home;

As long as the page object class extends qa.justtestlah.base.BasePage JustTestLah! (and Spring) will take care of the rest. In the same way you can also use page objects inside other page objects.

Platform-(in)dependent page objects

Spring profiles are used to identify for which platforms (Android, iOS, Web) a page object should be used. Simply annotate the page object class with @Profile and pass an array of platforms as its argument:

@Component
@Profile({ANDROID, WEB})
public class LoginPage extends BasePage<LoginPage>

Ideally, the same Java object can represent a page for all platforms. This is the case when the only differences are the UI locators (the locator keys are platform-independent; their platform-dependent values are only resolved at runtime).

When the above approach is not sufficient, you can use different page object classes for different platforms. In this case, it can be useful to have a base class containing common methods and subclass it for any platform-specific changes.

Make sure that there is exactly one page object class for each page/platform combination. Otherwise, Spring will throw an error during start-up.

Configuration

As mentioned before, all configuration goes in a file called justtestlah.properties. Its path can be passed using the jtlProps system property:

-DjtlProps=/path/to/justtestlah.properties

If no path is specified, configuration will be loaded from the classpath (in this case the file must be named justtestlah.properties).

The following is a complete list of available properties. You don’t need to specify all as most of them are optional.

# GENERAL settings
platform=web
pages.package=qa.justtestlah.examples.stackoverflow.pages
steps.package=qa.justtestlah.examples.stackoverflow.steps
features.directory=src/test/resources/features/stackoverflow
cucumber.report.directory=target/report/cucumber

# Galen
galen.enabled=false
galen.inject.locators=true
galen.report.directory=target/report/galen

# Template matching
opencv.enabled=false

# OCR
tesseract.datapath=

# Cloudprovider (`aws` or `browserstack`, the default is `local`)
cloudprovider=local

# WEB settings
web.baseUrl=https://www.stackoverflow.com
web.browser=chrome
web.headless=true

# MOBILE settings
mobile.appiumUrl=http://127.0.0.1:4723/wd/hub
mobile.deviceOrientation=portrait

# ANDROID settings
android.appPackage=com.stackexchange.stackoverflow
android.appActivity=com.stackexchange.stackoverflow.MainActivity
android.appPath=/Users/martinschneider/stackoverflow.apk
android.deviceName=Google Nexus 6

# IOS settings
ios.appPath=
ios.deviceName=iPhone 6

# BROWSERSTACK settings (requires `cloudprovider=browserstack` and `justtestlah-browserstack` on the classpath)

# Browserstack username
browserstack.username=
# Browserstack access key
browserstack.accessKey=

# Optional settings, see https://www.browserstack.com/automate/capabilities
browserstack.project=
browserstack.build=
browserstack.debug=true
browserstack.appiumLogs=true
browserstack.video=true
browserstack.geoLocation=SG
browserstack.timezone=SG
browserstack.appium_version=1.9-RC4.0
browserstack.acceptSslCerts=true

# AWS DEVICEFARM settings (requires `cloudprovider=aws` and `justtestlah-awsdevicefarm` on the classpath)
# The arn of your AWS Devicefarm project (mandatory)
aws.projectArn=

# App package to use. If this value is empty, it will be created and uploaded to AWS Devicefarm before the test execution
aws.appPackageArn=

# Test package to use. If this value is empty, it will be created and uploaded to AWS Devicefarm before the test execution
aws.testPackageArn=

# Optional extra data
aws.extraDataArn=

# Fully-qualified path to the justtestlah-demos project (required to build the test package)
aws.demo.path=/Users/martinschneider/git/justtestlah/justtestlah-demos

# Name for the test package (must match <finalName> in the justtestlah-demos pom.xml)
aws.testpackage.name=justtestlah-awsdevicefarm

# Device filters (optional)
aws.minOsVersion=9.0
aws.maxOsVersion=
aws.osVersion=
aws.model=
aws.manufacturer=
aws.formFactor=PHONE
aws.waitForDevice=true

# Device configuration (optional)
aws.deviceLatitude=
aws.deviceLongitude=
aws.bluetooth=
aws.gps=
aws.nfc=
aws.wifi=
# set this to true if you use device slots
aws.runUnmetered=false

# Additional AWS Devicefarm configuration
aws.accountsCleanup=
aws.appPackagesCleanup=
aws.jobTimeOut=
aws.skipAppResign=

Test runner

JustTestLah! uses JUnit to execute the tests. All you need to do is add an empty class which extends qa.justtestlah.JustTestLahTest:

public class TestRunner extends JustTestLahTest {}

Alternatively, you can also use the JUnit test runner directly:

@RunWith(JustTestLahRunner.class)
public class SomeTestClass {}

The feature files and steps are automatically picked up from the locations provided in justtestlah.properties.

Locators

Elements can be identified by a unique id, a css or an xpath expression. AccesibilityId (for iOS) and UIAutomator (for Android) are supported as well. Each element has a unique key (e.g. SEARCH_FIELD) which is mapped to its corresponding locator expression in a .yaml file. For example, let’s say the page object for the home page is demoproject.pages.HomePage (under /src/main/java). Then the corresponding locators are expected in /demoproject/pages/HomePage.yaml (under /src/main/resources).

Locators for different platforms “live” side by side in the same yaml file. Locators are grouped by page object rather than by platform.

Example of a locator YAML file:

LOGIN_BUTTON:
  web:
    type: xpath
    value: "//BUTTON//SPAN[text()='Log in']"
  ios:
    type: accesibilityId
    value: login_page_login_button
  android:
    type: id
    value: com.thecarousell.Carousell:id/login_page_login_button

The correct locator will be automatically resolved for the current platform. Taking the above example, the search field can be accessed in the HomePage page object by calling $("SEARCH_BUTTON"). This will return an instance of com.codeborne.selenide.SelenideElement. See the Selenide quick start to learn about all the cool ways you can interact with it. Two caveats to take note of:

  1. It is not possible to directly use elements in step definitions (only in page objects). This is by design as UI elements are meant to be encapsulated in the page objects.
  2. While we wrap Selenide’s $ method for the locator handling the methods you can call on the returned SelenideElement instances remains the same.

If omitted the default type of locators is css.

Placeholders

Locators can include both dynamic and static placeholders which will be replaced by variables passed to the $ method.

Static placeholders

You can think of static placeholders as variables. They can be defined in a file called placeholder.properties in the root of the pages package (specified as pages.package in justtestlah.properties). This is the same folder the locator YAML files are placed in.

This file continues key/value pairs in the following format:

SOME_KEY=someValue
PACKAGE_NAME=com.stackexchange.stackoverflow

One use-case, as shown above, can be to define the Android package name as a variable and use it in all id-based locators like this:

POST_TAG:
  android:
    type: id
    value: ${PACKAGE_NAME}:id/question_view_item_tags

If you want to override static placeholders during runtime, you can pass an extra placeholder file by setting locator.placeholders.file to its absolute path in justtestlah.properties. In this case, for any placeholders which occur in both files (the one under pages.package and locator.placeholders.file), the latter one will override the former.

Dynamic placeholders

Sometimes, you might require a locator which depends on some dynamic values defined only at runtime. You can achieve this by putting %s as a placeholder in the locator and use the $(String locatorKey, Object... params) and $$(String locatorKey, Object... params) methods in BasePage to pass the String which should be inserted at its place.

Let’s see an example:

POST_TAG:
  web:
    type: xpath
    value: "//A[contains(@class,'post-tag') and contains(text(),'%s')]"

Calling $("POST_TAG", "selenium") will return an element matching the following Xpath expression: //A[contains(@class,'post-tag') and contains(text(),'selenium').

Test data handling

JustTestLah! supports loading test data from YAML files. Each test data entity is represented by a Java class (the model) and one or many YAML files which contain the actual test data. For example:

@TestData
public class User {
  private String username;
  private String password;

  public User() {}

  public User(String username, String password) {
    this.username = username;
    this.password = password;
  }

  public String getUsername() {
    return username;
  }

  public void setUsername(String username) {
    this.username = username;
  }

  public String getPassword() {
    return password;
  }

  public void setPassword(String password) {
    this.password = password;
  }
}
user:
  username: myUsername
  password: myPassword

Note, that the top level key in the YAML file must match the name of the corresponding test data class. This is specified as the value of its @TestData annotation. If this is ommited, the (lower camel case) name of the class will be used instead.

You can then load test data in your tests as easy as this:

User defaultUser = testdata(User.class);
User validUser = testdata(User.class, "validUser");
User invalidUser = testdata(User.class, "userWithInvalidPassword");

The second parameter points to the name of the test entity which is the filename of the YAML file. If ommited, it defaults to default. In the above example, you would have three YAML files: default.yaml, validUser.yaml and userWithInvalidPassword.

There are three configuration values for this feature:

testdata.enabled=
model.package=
testdata.filter=

Setting testdata.enabled=true enables the YAML test data resolution. The default is false so don’t forget to set this if you use this feature in your projects.

model.package is mandatory and specifies the root package to scan for Java objects representing test entities (these classes need to be annotated with @TestData).

testdata.filter allows restricting the path to scan for test data YAML files. If left empty everything matching **/testdata/**/*.y*ml (under src/test/resources) will be considered.

Please note, that there is an additional check for the string testdata in the path of any testdata YAML files. Make sure that all testdata files are in a folder of that name or use testdata as a prefix or suffix in the filename.

Test reports

JustTestLah! uses Cucumber’s online reporting feature.

Cloud service integrations

JustTestLah! supports integrating with various cloud service provides. Some of them are in PoC state. Please feel free to contribute.

Browserstack

You can run tests against BrowserStack by adding the following configuration in justtestlah.properties:

cloudprovider=browserstack

# Browserstack username
browserstack.username=
# Browserstack access key
browserstack.accessKey=

# Optional settings, see https://www.browserstack.com/automate/capabilities
browserstack.debug=true
browserstack.appiumLogs=true
browserstack.video=true
browserstack.geoLocation=SG
browserstack.networkProfile=
browserstack.customNetwork=
browserstack.timezone=SG
browserstack.appium_version=1.9-RC4.0

Make sure justtestlah-browserstack-1.9-RC4.jar is on your classpath:

<dependency>
  <groupId>qa.justtestlah</groupId>
  <artifactId>justtestlah-browserstack</artifactId>
  <version>1.9-RC4</version>
</dependency>

Please note that BrowserStack is a paid service.

AWS Devicefarm

You can run tests against AWS Devicefarm by adding the following configuration in justtestlah.properties:

cloudprovider=aws

# The arn of your AWS Devicefarm project (mandatory)
aws.projectArn=

# App package to use. If this value is empty, it will be created and uploaded to AWS Devicefarm before the test execution
aws.appPackageArn=

# Test package to use. If this value is empty, it will be created and uploaded to AWS Devicefarm before the test execution
#aws.testPackageArn=

# Optional extra data
aws.extraDataArn=

# Fully-qualified path to the justtestlah-demos project (required to build the test package)
aws.demo.path=

# Name for the test package (must match <finalName> in the justtestlah-demos pom.xml)
aws.testpackage.name=justtestlah-awsdevicefarm

# Device filters (optional)
aws.minOsVersion=9.0
aws.maxOsVersion=
aws.osVersion=
aws.model=
aws.manufacturer=
aws.formFactor=PHONE
aws.waitForDevice=true

# Optional device configuration
aws.deviceLatitude=
aws.deviceLongitude
aws.bluetooth=
aws.gps=
aws.nfc=
aws.wifi=
# set this to true if you use device slots
aws.runUnmetered=false

# Additional AWS Devicefarm configuration
aws.accountsCleanup=
aws.appPackagesCleanup=
aws.jobTimeOut=
aws.skipAppResign=

Make sure justtestlah-awsdevicefarm-1.9-RC4.jar is on your classpath:

<dependency>
  <groupId>qa.justtestlah</groupId>
  <artifactId>justtestlah-awsdevicefarm</artifactId>
  <version>1.9-RC4</version>
</dependency>

You can refer to this article for a more detailled description of how to tweak AWS Devicefarm.

Please note that AWS Devicefarm is a paid service.

Visual and layout testing

Make sure justtestlah-visual-1.9-RC4.jar is on your classpath:

<dependency>
  <groupId>qa.justtestlah</groupId>
  <artifactId>justtestlah-visual</artifactId>
  <version>1.9-RC4</version>
</dependency>

Template matching

JustTestLah! allows locating elements using a template image:

WebElement ele = homePage.findImage("questionIcon.png");
ele.click();

The TemplateMatcher is scale-invariant (to some extent). The algorithm used to achieve this scales the target image (a screenshot of the device) up and down until either a match is found or a minimum (320) or maximum (3200) image width is reached. This works sufficiently well in practice, but improvements would still be welcome. Please contribute!

The closer the size of the template matches the size of the image on the screen the faster and more accurate the matching will be.

Matching threshold

ThefindImage method has an optional threshold parameter which can be used to define the accuracy of a match. The possible values range from 0 (no match) to 1 (pixel-perfect match). The default is 0.9.

Client and server-side integration

There are two modes to use template matching which can be configured in justtestlah.properties:

opencv.mode=client performs the image matching on the client (i.e. the machine running the test code). It requires OpenCV which is imported as a Maven dependency.

opencv.mode=server utilises the image matching feature of Appium. This requires OpenCV to be installed on the machine which runs the Appium server. This mode is deprecated, please use Appium’s findByImage functionality directly or switch to the client-mode.

OCR

JustTestLah! integrates Tesseract to perform Optical character recognition.

This requires justtestlah-visual-1.9-RC4.jar on the classpath:

<dependency>
  <groupId>qa.justtestlah</groupId>
  <artifactId>justtestlah-visual</artifactId>
  <version>1.9-RC4</version>
</dependency>

JustTestLah! uses Tess4J, a Java wrapper for Tesseract. You still need to install native binaries on your machine and set the tesseract datapath in the justtestlah.properties:

Depending on your operating system, Tesseract version and installation details, this might look something like this:

Linux

tesseract.datapath=/usr/share/tesseract-ocr/4.00/tessdata

Mac OS

# Mac OS
tesseract.datapath=/usr/local/Cellar/tesseract/4.1.1/share/tessdata

To use this feature, simply autowire an instance of the OCR class and pass a WebElement to its getText method. If you don’t pass an argument, OCR will be performed on a screenshot of the entire viewport.

Here is a demo where we get the text of the main logo on the Google search page:

@Component
@Profile(WEB)
@ScreenIdentifier("SEARCH_FIELD")
public class GooglePage extends BasePage<GooglePage> {

  @Autowired private OCR ocr;

  public String getLogoText() {
    return ocr.getText($("LOGO"));
  }
}

In the step class, we can then perform a check like this:

assertThat(googlePage.getLogoText()).isEqualTo("Google");

Applitools

Applitools support has been removed from the JTL core from version 1.9. That said, it is very easy to integrate Applitools using their Java SDK. Please note, that their license excludes commercial use.

Galen

Make sure justtestlah-galen-1.9-RC4.jar is on your classpath:

<dependency>
  <groupId>qa.justtestlah</groupId>
  <artifactId>justtestlah-galen</artifactId>
  <version>1.9-RC4</version>
</dependency>

JustTestLah! integrates the Galen framework. It can be enabled by setting galen.enabled=true in justtestlah.properties.

Similar to the properties-file holding the locator information, there is an (optional) spec file for each page object (in the same package as the Java class under src/main/resources).

Checks can be triggered by calling checkLayout() on any page object class. An HTML report is generated in the directory defined in galen.report.directory in justtestlah.properties (the default is target/galen-reports/).

  SEARCH_FIELD:
    below LOGO
    centered horizontally inside viewport
    visible

  LOGO:
    above SEARCH_FIELD
    centered horizontally inside viewport
    width < 100% of SEARCH_FIELD/width
    visible

Note, that you do not need to specify the @objects section in the Galen spec. This will be auto-generated during runtime based on the page object YAML file. You can refer to any UI element using its key.

See the Galen documentation for more examples.

Build from source

JustTestLah! uses Maven.

Make sure JAVA_HOME is set correctly. Then run:

mvn clean install -Dmaven.home=...

To build JustTestLah! without executing its tests, you can run:

mvn clean install -DskipTests=true

Both commands will build JustTestLah! and install it into your local Maven repository.

Used libraries

JustTestLah! makes use of a variety of frameworks to make writing and executing tests as enjoyable and straightforward as possible.

  • Selenium, the main test framework used by JustTestLah!
  • Appium, an extension of Selenium for native mobile app testing
  • Cucumber, the BDD framework
  • JUnit, the unit testing framework (mostly used as the runner for the tests)
  • Selenide, a convenience wrapper around Selenium
  • AssertJ, fluent assertions for unit tests
  • OpenCV, used for image comparison
  • Spring, IoC container for dependency injection and some added “magic” behind the scenes
  • Galen, used for layout based testing
  • Tesseract, used for Optical Charatcer Recognition (OCR)

Requirements and known-issues

  • JustTestLah! requires Java 10 or higher (and has been tested on Java 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14). Java 9 support has been dropped because of JDK-8193802 which isn’t fixed on Java below 10.
  • The OpenCV integration (used for client-side template matching) doesn’t work with Java 12 and above yet.
  • The demos and unit tests use Google Chrome.
  • ${maven.home} must be set to build JustTestLah! (unless you skip the unit tests).

Contact and support

Please let me know about any feedback, questions or ideas for improvement.

Martin Schneider - mart.schneider@gmail.com

Buy me a coffee